The Guide to Aromatherapy

Descriptions of Essential and Carrier Oils and some uses

Pour voir le CV d'Henrisch....

·         Ajowan

Trachyspermum ammi (Family, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae))

·         Source: fruits or seeds or whole aerial plant, India
production method: steam distillation
aroma type: herbaceous spicy
Safety Information: untested oil. Avoid during pregnancy, possible dermal sensitization Irritant.

·         Allspice Berry

Pimenta officinalis (Family, Myrtaceae)

·         Its spicy scent often used in potpourris. and used to flavor beverages, sweets and other foods. warming, cheering, sense enhancing. Warning Avoid use in Sun.

·         AKA Pimento P. dioica.More on Allspice
Source: fruits,
Cuba, Mexico and United States
production method: steam distillation
aroma type: spicy
traditional use: aphrodisiac
blends well with:ginger, geranium, lavender, labdanum, ylang ylang, patchouli, orris
Safety Information: use ½ recommended dilution or less; can cause skin irritation

·         Almond (sweet)

Prunus amygdalus, P. dulcis (Family, Rosaceae)

·         Obtained from the Nut of the tree and native to Asia and the Mediterranean this oil is a favourite Carrier oil for Essential oil aromatherapy blends. it is used in itself for moisturizing skin.

·         Ambrete seed

Abelmoscyhus moschatus AKA Hibiscus abelmoschus (Family, Malvaceae)

Perfume Note=Middle

·         Amyris

Amyris balsamifera, Schimmelia oleifera (Family, Rutaceae)

Perfume Note=Middle/Base

·         Angelica Root

Angelica archangelica, A. officinalis, A. glauca (Family, Apiaceae [Umbelleferae])

Perfume Note=Base to middle

production method: steam distillation
Root, France India, Germany, Hungary
blends well with: patchouli, clary sage, citrus oils, frankincense
Safety Information: Avoid during pregnancy Avoid use in the sun

·         Aniseed

Illicium verum (Family, Illiciaceae) production method: steam distillation
production method: steam distillation
Source: seed,
India, China, Spain
blends well with: Lavender, orange, pine, bay
Safety Information: should be avoided by pregnant women

·         Anise

Pimpinella anisum, Anisum officinalis (Family, Apiaceae [Umbelliferae])

Perfume Note=Middle

·         Apricot Kernel

Armeniaca vulgaris, Prunis armeniaca (Family, Rosaceae)

·         Arjowan

Trachyspermum ammi, T. copticum (Family, Apiaceae)

·         Armoise

Artemisia, vulgaris
Source: entire plant,
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: balancing, stimulating, energizing, toning
aroma type: aromatic
traditional use: emollient, soothing agent, muscle relaxant
blends well with: patchouli, rosemary, lavandin, sage, clary sage, cedarwood, cedar leaf
Safety Information: should be avoided by pregnant women

·         Avocado

Persea americana, Persea gratissima (Family, Lauraceae)

·         Babassu

Orbignya barbosiana (Family, Arecaceae)

·         Balsam Peru

Myroxylon balsamum var. pererae (Family, Fabaceae [Legumunosae])

Perfume Note=Base

·         Basil

Osimum basilicum (Family, Labiatae)

Perfume Note=Top

·         Bay Leaf

Pimenta racemosa (Family, Myrtaceae)

·         Beechnut

Fagus grandifolia, F. sylvatica (Family, Fagaceae)

·         Ben

Moringa oleifera, M. pterygosperma (Family, Moringaceae)

·         Benzoin tincture

Styax benzoin, S. tonkinensis (Family, Styacaceae)

Perfume Note=Base

·         Bergamot

Citrus bergamia (Family, Rutaceae)

Perfume Note=Top

·         Birch, Sweet.

Betula lenta, B. capinefolia (Family, Betulaceae)

·         Birch, White.

Betula alba (Family, Betulaceae)

·         Black Current Seed & Bud

Rives nigrum (Family, Grossulariaceae)

·         Black Pepper

Piper nigrum (Family, Piperceae)

Perfume Note=Middle

·         Borage

Borago officinalis (Family, Boraginaceae)

Brazil nut

Bertholletia excelsa (Family, Lecythidaceae)

·         Cabreuva

Myrocarpus fastigiatus (Family, Fabaceae)

·         Cade

Juniperus oxycedrus (Family, Cupressaceae) Source: wood, France
production method: steam distillation

·         Cajaput

Melaleuca cajaputi (Family, Myrtaceae)

Perfume Note=Top

·         Calendula

Calendula officinalis (Family, Asteraceae)

·         Calamint (catnip)

Calamintha clinopodium, C. grandiflora, C. officialis, Nepeta cataria, Saurreja calamintha (Family, Lamiaceae)

·         Calamus (Sweet Flag)

Acorus calamus, Calamus aromaticus (Family, Araceae)

·         Calophyllum

Calophyllum inophullum (Family, Guttiferae)

·         Camphor White

Cinnamomum camphora (Family, Lauraceae)

·         Canola (rapeseed)

Brassica napus (Family, Brassicaceae)

·         Cananga

Cananga odorata (Family, Annonaceae)

·         Caraway

Carum carvi, Apium carvi (Family, Apiaceae [Umbelliferae])

·         Cardamom Seed

Elettaria cardomum (Family, Zingiberaceae)

Perfume Note=Top

·         Carnation (Clove Pink)

Dianthus caryophyllus (Family, Caryophyllaceae)

·         Carrot seed & root

Daucus carota (Family, Apiaceae [Umbeliferae])

Perfume Note=Middle

·         Cashew nut

Anacardium occidentale (Family, Anacardiaceae)

·         Cascarilla Bark

Croton eleuteria (Family, Euphorbiaceae)

·         Cassia

Cinnamomum cassia, C. aromaticum, Laurus cassia (Family, Lauraceae))

Perfume Note=Middle(only room scent)

·         Cassie

Acacia farnesiana, Cassia ancienne (Family, Mimosaceae)

·         Castor

Ricunus communis (Family, Euphorbiaceae)

·         Catnip

Nepeta cataria Var citriodora (Family, )
Source: aerial parts,
France, United States, Yugoslavia

·         Cedar Leaf

Thuja, occidntalis
Source: leaves and stems,
United States
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: calming
aroma type: aromatic
traditional use: deodorant, astringent, soothing agent
blends well with: lavender, lavandin, rosemary, armoise

·         Cedarwood

Juniperus mexicana scheide (Family, Pinaceae)

Perfume Note=Base

·         Cedarwood (Atlas)

Cedrus atlantica (Family, Pinaceae)

·         Cedarwood Virginia

Juniperus virginiana J. communis(Family, Cupressaceae)

Perfume Note=Base

·         Celery Seed

Alpium graveolens (Family, Apiaceae [Umbelliferae])

·         Chamomile, German

Matricaria chamomilla or M. recutia (Family, Asteraceae [Compositae])

Perfume Note=Middle

·         Chamomile Roman

Chamaemelum nobile or Anthemis noblis (Family, Asteraceae [Compositae])

Perfume Note=Middle

·         Chamomile Moroc (Sauvage)

Anthemis mixta, Ormenis mixta, O. multicaulis (Family, Asteraceae)

·         Champaca Flower & Leaf

Michelia alba, M. champaca (Family, Magnoliaceae)

·         Cinnamon (Bark & Leaf)

Cinnamomum zeylanicum, C verum, Laurus cimmamomum (Family, Lauraceae)

Perfume Note=middle (only room scent)

·         Citronella

Cymbopogon nardus, Andropogon nardus (Family, Poaceae [Gramineae])

Perfume Note=Top

·         Clary Sage

Salvia sclerea (Family, Lamiaceae [Labiatae])

Perfume Note=Top/Middle

·         Clove (Bud, Leaf & Stem)

Syzygium aromaticum, Eugenia caryophyllata, E. aromaticia, E. caryophyllus (Family, Myrtaceae)

Perfume Note=Middle (room scent only)

·         Coffee

Coffea arabica (Family, Rubiaceae)

·         Copaiba

Copaifera officinalis(Family, Fabaceae)

·         Coriander

Coriandum sativum (Family, Apiacea [Umbelliferae])

Perfume Note=Top

·         Cornmint

Mentha arvensis (Family, Lamiaceae)

·         Costus

Saussurea costus, S. lappa (Family, Asteraceae)

·         Cubeb

Cubeba officinalis, Piper cubeba (Family, Piperaceae)

·         Cumin

Cuminum cyminun, C. odorum (Family, Apiaceae [Umbelliferae])

·         Cyperus (Cypriol)

Cyperus scariosus (Family, Cyperaceae)

·         Cypress

Cupressus sempervirens (Family, Cupressaceae)

Perfume Note=Middle

·         Dill

Anethum graveolens (Family, Apiaceae [Umbelliferae])

·         Elecampane

Aster officinalis, Hellenium grandiflorum, Inula helenium (Family, Asteraceae)

·         Elemi

Canarium commune, C. luzonicum (Family, Bursecracae)

·         Eucalyptus

Eucalyptus globulus (Family, Myrtaceae)

Perfume Note=Top

·         Evening Primrose

Centhera biennis

·         Fennel

Foeniculum vulgare, F. officinale, Anethum foeniculum (Family, Apiaceae [Umbelliferae])

Perfume Note=Top/Middle

·         Fir Needle

Abies alba (Family, Pinaceae)

Perfume Note=Middle

·         Frankincense

Boswellia thurifera or B. carteri (Family, Burseraceae)

Perfume Note=Base

·         Galangal

Alpina officinarum, Languas officinarum (Family, Zingiberaceae)

·         Galbanum

Ferula galbaniflua, F. cummosa, F. rubicaulis (Family, Apiaceae)

·         Gardenia

Gardenia grandifloria (Family, Rubiaceae)

·         Garlic

Allium sativum (Family, Lilliaceae)
(more to come) Safety Information: Should not be used if suffereing from eczema or psorisis. External applical can be highly irritating to the skin. Can cause colic in babies if taken by breastfeeding mothers.

·         Geranium

Pelargonium graveolen (Family, Geraniaceae)

Perfume Note=Middle to Top

Source: leaves and stems,
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: balancing, soothing
skin type: oily, dry
aroma type: floral
traditional use: skin refresher, astringent
blends well with: cedarwood, citronella, clary sage, grapefruit, jasmine, lavender, lime, neroli, orange, petitgrain, rose, rosemary, sandalwood

·         Ginger

Zingiber officinalis (Family, Zingiberaceae)

Perfume Note=Top

·         Goldenrod

Solidago canadensis, S. odora (Family, Asteraceae)

·         Grapefruit

Citrus paradisi, C. racemosa (Family, Rutaceae)

Perfume Note=Top

·         Guaiac Wood

Bulnesia sarmientoi (Family, Zygophyllaceae)

·         Helichrysum (Italian Everlasting or Immortelle)

Helichrysum angustifolium, H. italicum (Family Asteraceae)

·         Helichrysum

Helichrysum stoechas (Family Asteraceae)
France, Spain Yugoslavia
production method: steam distillation

·         Henna (Hina)

Lawsonia inermis (Family Lythaveae)
production method: steam distillation and absolute

·         Hops

Jumulus lupulus (Family, Moraceae)

·         Hyssop

Hyssopus officinalis, H. officinalis Var. decumbens (Family, Lamiaceae [Labiatae])

·         Jasmine Absolute

Jasminum officinale or J. Grandiflorum (Family, Oleaceae)

Perfume Note=Base

·         Juniper

Juniperus communis (Family, Cupressaceae)

Perfume Note=Middle

·         Khella

Ammi visnaga (Family, Umbelliferae)
The oil is rare on the commercial market, if at all.
Source: seeds,
Egypt and Morocco
production method: steam distillation
Safety Information: No formal testing. Avoid in pregnancy, slight photosensitivity.

·         Labdanum (Cistus or Rock Rose)

Cistus ladanifer (Family, Cisgaceae)

·         Labrador tea

Ledum groenlandicum (Family Ericaceae)

·         Lantana

Lantana camara(Family, Verbenaceae)
This oil is rare on the commercial market.
Source: Aerial parts,
production method: steam distillation
Safety Information: No traditional EO uses, but due to large Ketone % avoid in Pregnancy.

·         Lavender

Lavendula augustifolia, L. officinalis, L. vera (Family, Lamiaceae [Labiatae])

Perfume Note=Middle to Top

·         Lavandin

Lavandula hybrida, L. fragrans, L. hortensis (Family, Lamiaceae [Labiatae])

Perfume Note=Middle to Top

·         Lavender Spike

Lavandula latifolia
Source: leaves and stems,
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: stimulating, energizing
aroma type: herbaceous
skin type: sensitve, all skin types
traditional use: muscle relaxant, soothing agent, skin conditioner, astringent
blends well with: lavender, lavandin, rosemary, eucalyptus, petitgrain, neroli

·         Lovage Root

Levisticum officinalis(Family, Umbelliferae)
This oil is rare on the commercial market. Source: root
production method: steam distillation CO2
aroma type: Earthy
Safety Information: Phototoxic. Possible irritation, possible sensitization

·         Lemongrass

Cymbopogon Citratus (Family, Poaceae [Gramineae])

Perfume Note=Top

·         Lemon

Citrus Limonum (Family, Rutaceae)

Perfume Note=Top

·         Lemon Verbena

Aloysia citriodora, A. triphylla, Lippia citriodora, L. tripohylla, Verbena triphylla

·         Lime

Citrus Aurantifolia (Family, Rutaceae)

Perfume Note=Top

·         Linden Blossom

Tilia europaea. T. vulgaris> (Family, Tiliaceae)

·         Litsea Cubeba

Litsea citrata, L. cubeba (Family, Lauraceeae)

·         Lovage

Angelica levisticum, Levisticum officinale, Ligusticum levisticum (Family, Apiaceae)

·         Mandarin

Citrus Noblis (Family, Rutaceae)

Perfume Note=Top

·         Manuka (Leptospermum or New Zealand Tea Tree)

Letospermum scoparium, L. ericoides, (Kanuka) L. petersonii, L. coparium (Manuka) (Family, Myrtaceae)

·         Marigold Tagetes

Tagetes Glandulifera (or T. minuta or T. putuh) (Family, Asteraceae [Compositae])

Perfume Note=Top

·         Marjoram (Spanish & Sweet)

Origanum Marjorana, Majorana hortensis,(Sweet) Thymus mastichina (Spanish) (Family, Lamiaceae [Labiatae])

Perfume Note=Middle

·         Marjoram, Wild

Thymus Masticina (Family, Lamiaceae [Labiatae])

Perfume Note=Middle

·         Massoia Bark

Cryptocarya massoia (Family, Lauraceae)

·         Melissa

Milissa Officinalis (Family, Labiatae)

Perfume Note=Middle

·         Mimosa

Acacia dealbata, A. decurrens (Family Mimosaceae)

·         Monarda

Monarda fistulosa (Family, Lamiaceae)

·         Menthe pouliot

Mentha, pulegium
Source: aerial parts,
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: toning, stimulating
aroma type: minty
Safety Information: should be avoided by pregnant women

·         Mugwort (Armoise)

Artemisa vulgaris (Family, Asteraceae)

·         Myrrh

Commiphora Myrrha, C. Molmol, Balsamodendrom myrra (Family, Burseraceae)

Perfume Note=Base

·         Myrtle

Myrtus communis (Family, Mytraceae)

·         Narcissus

Narcissus, poeticus
Source: flowers, France
production method: solvent extraction
aroma type: floral
traditional use: perfume
blends well with: clove bud, jasmine, neroli, ylang ylang, rose, mimosa, sandalwood

·         Neroli Absolute

Citrus Aurantium (Family, rutaceae)

Perfume Note=Middle

·         Niaouli

Melaleuca Viridiflora, M. quinquenirvia (Family, Myrtaceae)

·         Nutmeg

Myristica aromata, M. fragrans, M. officinalis, Nux moschata. (Family, Myristicaceae)

·         Orange

Citrus Sinensis (Family, Rutaceae)

Perfume Note=Top

·         Oregano

Origanum vulgare (Family,Lamiaceae)

·         Orris Root

Iris florentina, I. pallida (Family, Iridaceae)

·         Osmanthus

Osmanthus fragrans (Family, Oleaceae)

·         Palmarosa

Cymbopogon martinii, Andronpogon martinii (Family, Graminaceae (Poaceae))

Perfume Note=Middle

·         Parsley Seed

Petroselinum sativum, P. hortense, Apium petroselinum, Carum petroselinium, (Family, Apiaceae [Umbelliferae]) This essential oil has a warm, spicy and herby aroma. Its main use is as a diuretic and in the treatment of urinary tract problems. Warning Parsley oil should be used by all with great care as there can be confusion between Parsley Leaf and Parsley Seed oils which can have different affects.

·         Patchouli

Pogostemon patchouli, P. cablin (Family, Lamiaceae [Labiatae])

Perfume Note=Base

·         Peppermint

Mentha piperta (Family, Lamiaceae [Labiatae])

Perfume Note=Top

·         Petitgrain

Citrus aurantium, C. bigaradia (Family, Rutaceae)

Perfume Note=Top

·         Pine

Pinus sylvestris (Family, Pinaceae)

Perfume Note=Middle

·         Ravensara Anisata (and R. Aromatica)

Cinnamonum camphora, Ravensara anisata, R. Aromatica (Family Lauraceae)

·         Rose Absolute

Rosa damascena (Family, Rosaceae)

Perfume Note=Middle (The supreme "Bridging oil")

·         Rose Otto

Rosa damascena (Family, Rosaceae)

Perfume Note=Middle

·         Rosemary

Rosemarinus officinalis, R. coronarium (Family, Lamiaceae [Labiatae])

Perfume Note=Middle

·         Rosewood

Aniba Rosaeodora (Family, Lauraceae)

Perfume Note=Middle/Top

·         Sage

Salvia Officinalis (Family, Lamiaceae [Labiatae])

Perfume Note=Top

·         Sandalwood Mysore

Santalum Album (Family, Santalaceae)

Perfume Note=Base

·         Spearmint

Mentha spicata, M. viridis (Family, Lamiaceae [Labiatae])

Perfume Note=Top

·         Spikenard

Nardostachys jatamansi (Family, Valerianaceae)

·         St. John's Wort

Hypericum perforatum (Family Guttiferae)

·         Styrax (Liquidamber or Storax)

Balsam styracis, Liquidamber orientalis, L. styraciflua (Family, Hamamelidaceae)

·         Tangerine

Citrus reticulata (Family, Rutaceae)

Perfume Note=Top


Artemisia dracunculus (Family, Asteraceae)

·         Tea Tree

Melaleuca alternifolia, M. linariifolia, M.uncintata (Family, Myrtaceae)

Perfume Note=Top

·         Thyme (sweet)

Thymus Vulgaris (Family, Lamiaceae (Labiatea)

Perfume Note=Middle

·         Vanilla Absolute

Vanilla plantifolia

Source: seeds,
production method: solvent extraction
aroma type: balsamic
traditional use: emollient, aphrodisiac
blends well with: sandalwood, vetiver

·         Vetivert

Vetivera zizanoides, Andropogon muricatus(Family, Poaceae [Gramineae])

Perfume Note=Base

·         Violet Leaves

Viola, odorata
Source: leaves,
France and Egypt
production method: solvent extraction
aromatherapy class: calming, balancing
aroma type: herbaceous
traditional use: soothing agent, skin conditioner
blends well with: clary sage, basil

·         Wintergreen

Gualtheria Promcumbens (Family, (Family, Ericaceae)

·         Yarrow

Achillea Millefolium (Family, Asteraceae [Compositae])

Perfume Note=Middle

·         Ylang Ylang

Cananga Odorata (Family, Annonaceae)

Perfume Note=Base/Middle

·         Zanthoxylum

Zanthoxylum alatum, Z. americum, Z. rhesta (Family, Rutaceae)

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